# Research projects

Find a postgraduate research project in your area of interest by exploring the research projects we offer in the Department of Mathematics.

## Programme directors

If you are not sure which supervisors are the best match for your interests, contact the postgraduate programme directors:

- Sean Holman (applied mathematics and numerical analysis)
- Olatunji Johnson (probability, statistics and financial mathematics)
- Marcus Tressl (pure mathematics)

You can also get in touch with the postgraduate research leads through our research themes page.

Find a postgraduate research project in your area of interest by exploring the research projects we offer in the Department of Mathematics.

Opportunities within the department are advertised by supervisors as either:

- Specific, well-defined individual projects: which you can apply for directly after contacting the named supervisor
- Research fields with suggestions for possible projects: where you can discuss a range of potential projects available in a specific area with the supervisor.

Choosing the right PhD project depends on matching your interests to those of your supervisor.

Our research themes page gives an overview of the research taking place in the Department and contacts for each area. Potential supervisors can also be contacted directly through the academic staff list. They will be able to tell you more about the type of projects they offer and/or you can suggest a research project yourself.

Please note that all PhD projects are eligible for funding via a variety of scholarships from the Department, the Faculty of Science and Engineering and/or the University; see our funding page for further details. All scholarships are awarded competitively by the relevant postgraduate funding committees.

Academics regularly apply for research grants and may therefore be able to offer funding for specific projects without requiring approval from these committees. Some specific funded projects are listed below, but many of our students instead arrive at a project through discussion with potential supervisors.

## Specific, individual projects

Browse all of our specific, individual projects listed on FindAPhD:

## Research field projects

In addition to individual projects listed on FindAPhD, we are also looking for postgraduate researchers for potential projects within a number of other research fields.

Browse these fields below and get in contact with the named supervisor to find out more..

### Applied Mathematics and Numerical Analysis

## Adaptive finite element approximation strategies

**Theme: **Numerical analytics and scientific computing** | Supervisor: **David Silvester

I would be happy to supervise projects in the general area of efficient solution of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations using finite elements. PhD projects would involve a mix of theoretical analysis and the development of proof-of-concept software written in MATLAB or Python. The design of robust and efficient error estimators is an open problem in computational fluid dynamics.

Recent papers on this topic include

Alex Bespalov, Leonardo Rocchi and David Silvester, T--IFISS: a toolbox for adaptive FEM computation, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 81: 373--390, 2021.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.camwa.2020.03.005

Arbaz Khan, Catherine Powell and David Silvester, Robust a posteriori error estimators for mixed approximation of nearly incompressible elasticity, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 119: 1--20, 2019.

https://doi.org/10.1002/nme.6040

John Pearson, Jen Pestana and David Silvester, Refined saddle-point preconditioners for discretized Stokes problems, Numerische Mathematik, 138: 331--363, 2018.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00211-017-0908-4

## Bayesian and machine learning methods for statistical inverse problems

**Theme: **Statistics, inverse problems, uncertainty quantification and data science** | Supervisor: **Simon Cotter

A range of projects are available on the topic of statistical inverse problems, in particular with application to problems in applied mathematics. Our aim is to construct new methods for the solution of statistical inverse problems, and to apply them to real problems from science, biology, engineering, etc. These may be more traditional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, Piecewise-deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs), gradient flows (e.g. Stein gradient descent), or entirely new families of methods. Where possible the methods will be flexible and widely applicable, which will enable us to also apply them to real problems and datasets.

Some recent applications involve cell matching in biology, and characterisation of physical properties of materials, for example the thermal properties of a manmade material, or the Young's modulus of a tendon or artery.

The project will require the candidate to be proficient in a modern programming language (e.g. Python).

## Complex deformations of biological soft tissues

**Theme: **Continuum mechanics** | Supervisor: **Tom Shearer, Andrew Hazel

The answers to many open questions in medicine depend on understanding the mechanical behaviour of biological soft tissues. For example, which tendon is most appropriate to replace the anterior cruciate ligament in reconstruction surgery? what causes the onset of aneurysms in the aorta? and how does the mechanics of the bladder wall affect afferent nerve firing? Current work at The University of Manchester seeks to understand how the microstructure of a biological soft tissue affects its macroscale mechanical properties. We have previously focused on developing non-linear elastic models of tendons and are now seeking to incorporate more complex physics such as viscoelasticity, and to consider other biological soft tissues, using our “in house” finite element software oomph-lib. The work will require development and implementation of novel constitutive equations as well as formulation of non-standard problems in solid mechanics. The project is likely to appeal to students with an interest in continuum mechanics, computational mathematics and interdisciplinary science.

## Efficient solution for PDEs with random data

**Theme: **Numerical analytics and scientific computing** | Supervisor: **David Silvester

I would be happy to supervise projects in the general area of efficient solution of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations with random data. PhD projects would involve a mix of theoretical analysis and the development of proof-of-concept software written in MATLAB or Python. The design of robust and efficient error estimators for stochastic collocation approximation methods is an active area of research within the uncertainty quantification community.

Recent papers on this topic include

Alex Bespalov, David Silvester and Feng Xu. Error estimation and adaptivity for stochastic collocation finite elements Part I: single-level approximation, SIAM J. Scientific Computing, 44: A3393--A3412, 2022.

{\tt https://doi.org/10.1137/21M1446745}

Arbaz Khan, Alex Bespalov, Catherine Powell and David Silvester, Robust a posteriori error estimators for stochastic Galerkin formulations of parameter-dependent linear elasticity equations, Mathematics of Computation, 90: 613--636, 2021.

https://doi.org/10.1090/mcom/3572

Jens Lang, Rob Scheichl and David Silvester, A fully adaptive multilevel collocation strategy for solving elliptic PDEs with random data, J. Computational Physics, 419, 109692, 2020.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2020.109692

## Fluid flow, interfaces, bifurcations, continuation and control

**Theme: **Continuum mechanics** | Supervisor: **Alice Thompson

My research interests are in fluid dynamical systems with deformable interfaces, for example bubbles in very viscous fluid, or inkjet printed droplets. The deformability of the interface can lead to complex nonlinear behaviour, and often occurs in configurations where full numerical simulation of the three-dimensional system is computationally impossible.

This computational difficulty leaves an important role for mathematical modelling, in using asymptotic or physical arguments to devise simpler models which can help us understand underlying physical mechanisms, make testable predictions, and to directly access control problems for active (feedback) or passive control mechanisms.

Most recently I am interested in how different modelling methodologies affect whether models are robust in the forward or control problems. I am also interested in how control-based continuation methods can be used in continuum mechanics to directly observe unstable dynamical behaviour in experiments, even without access to a physical model.

This research combines fluid dynamics, mathematical modelling, computational methods (e.g. with the finite-element library oomph-lib), experiments conducted in the Manchester Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, control theory and nonlinear dynamics. I would not expect any student to have experience in all these areas and there is scope to shape any project to your interests.

## Granular materials in industry and nature

**Theme: **Continuum mechanics** | Supervisor: **Chris Johnson

The field of granular materials encompasses a vast range of materials and processes, from the formation of sand dunes on a beach and snow avalanches in the mountains, to the roasting of coffee beans and the manufacture of pharmaceutical tablets. The science of granular materials is still in its relative infancy, and many aspects of flowing grains cannot yet be predicted with a continuum rheology. Insights into granular material behaviour come from a range of methods, and my research therefore combines mathematical modelling, computation, and laboratory experiments, undertaken at the Manchester Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics laboratories.

Some example areas of work suitable for a PhD project include:

- Debris flows and their deposits

Debris flows are rapid avalanches of rock and water, which are triggered on mountainsides when erodible sediment is destabilised by heavy rainfall or snowmelt. These flows cause loss of life and infrastructure across the world, but many of the physical mechanisms underlying their motion remain poorly understood. Because it is difficult to predict where and when a debris flow will occur, scientific observations are rarely made on an active flow. More often, all we have to work from is the deposit left behind, and some detective work is required to infer properties of the flow (such as its speed and composition) from this deposit. This project focuses on developing theoretical models for debris flows that predict both a debris flow and its deposit -- in particular the way in which grains of different sizes are distributed throughout the deposit. The aim is then to invert such models, allowing observations of a deposit, when combined with model simulations, to constrain what must have happened during the flow.

- Modelling polydispersity

Much of the current theory of granular materials has been formulated with the assumption of a single type of grain. When grains vary in size, shape or density, it opens up the possibility that such grains with different properties separate from one another, a process called segregation. A fundamental question in this area is predicting the rate of segregation from a description of a granular material, such as the distribution of particle sizes. Thanks to some recent developments, we are approaching a point where this can be done for very simple granular materials (in particular those containing only two, similar, sizes sizes of grain), but many practical granular materials are much more complex. For example, it is common for mixtures of grains used in industry to vary in diameter by a factor of more than 100, and the complex segregation that can occur in these mixtures is poorly understood. This project will make measurements of the segregation behaviour of such mixtures and use these to put together a theoretical framework for describing segregation in complex granular materials.

## Machine learning with partial differential equations

**Theme: **Statistics, inverse problems, uncertainty quantification and data science** | Supervisor: **Jonas Latz

Machine learning and artificial intelligence play a major part in our everyday life. Self-driving cars, automatic diagnoses from medical images, face recognition, or fraud detection, all profit especially from the universal applicability of deep neural networks. Their use in safety critical applications, however, is problematic: no interpretability, missing mathematical guarantees for network or learning process, and no quantification of the uncertainties in the neural network output.

Recently, models that are based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have gained popularity in machine learning. In a classification problem, for instance, a PDE is constructed whose solution correctly classifies the training data and gives a suitable model to classify unlabelled feature vectors. In practice, feature vectors tend to be high dimensional and the natural space on which they live tends to have a complicated geometry. Therefore, partial differential equations on graphs are particularly suitable and popular. The resulting models are interpretable, mathematically well-understood, and uncertainty quantification is possible. In addition, they can be employed in a semi-supervised fashion, making them highly applicable in small data settings.

I am interested in various mathematical, statistical, and computational aspects of PDE-based machine learning. Many of those aspects translate easily into PhD projects; examples are

- Efficient algorithms for p-Laplacian-based regression and clustering

- Bayesian identification of graphs from flow data

- PDEs on random graphs

- Deeply learned PDEs in data science

Depending on the project, applicants should be familiar with at least one of: (a) numerical analysis and numerical linear algebra; (b) probability theory and statistics; (c) machine learning and deep learning.

## Mathematical modelling of nano-reinforced foams

**Theme: **Maths: Continuum mechanics** | Supervisor: **William Parnell

Complex materials are important in almost every aspect of our lives, whether that is using a cell phone, insulating a house, ensuring that transport is environmentally friendly or that packaging is sustainable. An important facet of this is to ensure that materials are optimal in some sense. This could be an optimal stiffness for a given weight or an optimal conductivity for a given stiffness. Foams are an important class of material that are lightweight but also have the potential for unprecedented mechanical properties by adding nano-reinforcements (graphene flakes or carbon nanotubes) into the background or matrix material from which the foam is fabricated. When coupled with experimentation such as imaging and mechanical testing, mathematical models allow us to understand how to improve the design and properties of such foams.

A number of projects are available in this broad area and interested parties can discuss these by making contact with the supervisor.

## Multiscale modelling of structure-function relationships in biological tissues

**Theme: **Maths: Mathematics in the life sciences** | Supervisor: **Oliver Jensen

Biological tissues have an intrinsically multiscale structure. They contain components that range in size from individual molecules to the scale of whole organs. The organisation of individual components of a tissue, which often has a stochastic component, is intimately connected to biological function. Examples include exchange organs such as the lung and placenta, and developing multicellular tissues where mechanical forces play an crucial role in growth. To describe such materials mathematically, new multiscale approaches are needed that retain essential elements of tissue organisation at small scales, while providing tractable descriptions of function at larger scales. Projects are available in these areas that offer opportunities to collaborate with life scientists while developing original mathematical models relating tissue structure to its biological function.

## Wave manipulation using metamaterials

**Theme: **Maths: Continuum mechanics** | Supervisor: **William Parnell

The ability to control electromagnetic waves, sound, vibration has been of practical interest for decades. Over the last century a number of materials have been designed to assist with the attenuation of unwanted noise and vibration. However, recently there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of metamaterials and metasurfaces. Such media have special microstructures, designed to provide overall (dynamic) material properties that natural materials can never hope to attain and lead to the potential of negative refraction, wave redirection and the holy grail of cloaking. Many of the mechanisms to create these artificial materials rely on low frequency resonance. Frequently we are interested in the notion of homogenisation of these microstructures and this requires a mathematical framework.

A number of projects are available in this broad area and interested parties can discuss these by making contact with the supervisor.

### Pure Mathematics and Logic

## Algebraic differential equations and model theory

**Theme: **Algebra, logic and number theory** | Supervisor: **Omar Leon sanchez

Differential rings and algebraic differential equations have been a crucial source of examples for model theory (more specifically, geometric stability theory), and have had numerous application in number theory, algebraic geometry, and combinatorics (to name a few).

In this project we propose to establish and analyse deep structural results on the model theory of (partial) differential fields. In particular, in the setup of differentially large fields.

There are interesting questions around inverse problems in differential Galois theory that can be address as part of this project. On the other hand, there are (still open) questions related to the different notions of rank in differentially closed fields; for instance: are there infinite dimensional types that are also strongly minimal? This is somewhat related to the understanding of regular types, which interestingly are quite far from being fully classified. A weak version of Zilber's dichotomy have been established for such types, but is the full dichotomy true?

## Algebraic invariants of abelian varieties

**Theme: **Algebra, logic and number theory** | Supervisor: **Martin Orr

Project: Algebraic invariants of abelian varieties

Abelian varieties are higher-dimensional generalisations of elliptic curves, objects of algebraic geometry which are of great interest to number theorists. There are various open questions about how properties of abelian varieties vary across a families of abelian varieties.

The aim of this project is to study the variation of algebraic objects attached to abelian varieties, such as endomorphism algebras, Mumford-Tate groups or isogenies. These algebraic objects control much of the behaviour of the abelian variety. We aim to bound their complexity in terms of the equations defining the abelian variety.

Potential specific projects include:

(1) Constructing "relations between periods" from the Mumford-Tate group. This involves concrete calculations of polynomials, similar in style to classical invariant theory of reductive groups.

(2) Understanding the interactions between isogenies and polarisations of abelian varieties. This involves calculations with fundamental sets for arithmetic group actions, generalising reduction theory for quadratic forms.

A key tool is the theory of reductive groups and their finite-dimensional representations (roots and weights).

## Algebraic Model Theory of Fields with Operators

**Theme: **Algebra, logic and number theory** | Supervisor: **Omar Leon sanchez

Model theory is a branch of Mathematical Logic that has had several remarkable applications with other areas of mathematics, such as Combinatorics, Algebraic Geometry, Number Theory, Arithmetic Geometry, Complex and Real Analysis, Functional Analysis, and Algebra (to name a few). Some of these applications have come from the study of model-theoretic properties of fields equipped with a family of operators. For instance, this includes differential/difference fields. In this project, we look at the model theory of fields equipped with general classes of operators and also within certain natural classes of arithmetic fields (such as large fields). Several foundational questions remain open around what is called "model-companion", "elimination of imaginaries", and the "trichotomy", this is a small sample of the problems that can be tackled.

## Homeomorphism groups from a geometric viewpoint

**Theme: **Algebra, logic and number theory** | Supervisor: **Richard Webb

A powerful technique for studying groups is to use their actions by isometries on metric spaces. Properties of the action can be translated into algebraic properties of the group, and vice versa. This is called geometric group theory, and has played a key role in different fields of mathematics e.g. random groups, mapping class groups of surfaces, fundamental groups of 3-manifolds, the Cremona group.

In this project we will study the homeomorphisms of a surface by using geometric group theoretic techniques recently introduced by Bowden, Hensel, and myself. This is a new research initiative at the frontier between dynamics, topology, and geometric group theory, and there are many questions waiting to be explored using these tools. These range from new questions on the relationship between the topology/dynamics of homeomorphisms and their action on metric spaces, to older questions regarding the algebraic structure of the homeomorphism group.

## The Existential Closedness problem for exponential and automorphic functions

**Theme: **Maths: Algebra, logic and number theory** | Supervisor: **Vahagn Aslanyan

The Existential Closedness problem asks when systems of equations involving field operations and certain classical functions of a complex variable, such as exponential and modular functions, have solutions in the complex numbers. There are conjectures predicting when such systems should have solutions. The general philosophy is that when a system is not "overdetermined" (e.g. more equations than variables) then it should have a solution. The notion of an overdetermined system of equations is related to Schanuel's conjecture and its analogues and is captured by some purely algebraic conditions.

The aim of this project is to make progress towards the Existential Closedness conjectures (EC for short) for exponential and automorphic functions (and the derivatives of automorphic functions). These include the usual complex exponential function, as well as the exponential functions of semi-abelian varieties, and modular functions such as the j-invariant. Significant progress has been made towards EC in recent years, but the full conjectures are open. There are many special cases which are within reach and could be tackled as part of a PhD project. Methods used to approach EC come from complex analysis and geometry, differential algebra, model theory (including o-minimality), tropical geometry.

Potential specific projects are: (1) proving EC in low dimensions (e.g. for 2 or 3 variables), (2) proving EC for certain relations defined in terms of the function under consideration, e.g. establishing new EC results for "blurred" exponential and/or modular functions, (3) proving EC under additional geometric assumptions on the system of equations, (4) using EC to study the model-theoretic properties of exponential and automorphic functions.

### Statistics and Probability

## Distributional approximation by Stein's method Theme

**Theme: **Probability, financial mathematics and actuarial science** | Supervisor: **Robert Gaunt

Stein's method is a powerful (and elegant) technique for deriving bounds on the distance between two probability distributions with respect to a probability metric. Such bounds are of interest, for example, in statistical inference when samples sizes are small; indeed, obtaining bounds on the rate of convergence of the central limit theorem was one of the most important problems in probability theory in the first half of the 20th century.

The method is based on differential or difference equations that in a sense characterise the limit distribution and coupling techniques that allow one to derive approximations whilst retaining the probabilistic intuition. There is an active area of research concerning the development of Stein's method as a probabilistic tool and its application in areas as diverse as random graph theory, statistical mechanics and queuing theory.

There is an excellent survey of Stein's method (see below) and, given a strong background in probability, the basic method can be learnt quite quickly, so it would be possible for the interested student to make progress on new problems relatively shortly into their PhD. Possible directions for research (although not limited) include: extend Stein's method to new limit distributions; generalisations of the central limit theorem; investigate `faster than would be expected' convergence rates and establish necessary and sufficient conditions under which they occur; applications of Stein's method to problems from, for example, statistical inference.

Literature: Ross, N. Fundamentals of Stein's method. Probability Surveys 8 (2011), pp. 210-293.

## Long-term behaviour of Markov Chains

**Theme: **Probability, financial mathematics and actuarial science** | Supervisor: **Malwina Luczak

Several projects are available, studying idealised Markovian models of epidemic, population and network processes. The emphasis will mostly be on theoretical aspects of the models, involving advanced probability theory.

For instance, there are a number of stochastic models of epidemics where the course of the epidemic is known to follow the solution of a differential equation over short time intervals, but where little or nothing has been proved about the long-term behaviour of the stochastic process.

Techniques have been developed for studying such problems, and a project might involve adapting these methods to new settings.

Depending on the preference of the candidate, a project might involve a substantial computational component, gaining insights into the behaviour of a model, via simulations, ahead of proving rigorous theoretical results.

## Mathematical Epidemiology

**Theme: **Mathematics in the life sciences** | Supervisor: **Thomas House

Understanding patterns of disease at the population level - Epidemiology - is inherently a quantitative problem, and increasingly involves sophisticated research-level mathematics and statistics in both infectious and chronic diseases. The details of which diseases and mathematics offer the best PhD directions are likely to vary over time, but this broad area is available for PhD research.

## Spatial and temporal modelling for crime

**Theme: **Maths: Statistics, inverse problems, uncertainty quantification and data science** | Supervisor: **Ines Henriques-Cadby, Olatunji Johnson

A range of projects are available on the topic of statistical spatial and temporal modelling for crime.

These projects will focus on developing novel methods for modelling crime related events in space and time, and applying these to real world datasets, mostly within the UK, but with the possibility to use international datasets. Some examples of recent applications include spatio-temporal modelling of drug overdoses and related crime.

These projects will aim to use statistical spatio-temporalpoint processes methods, Bayesian methods, and machine learning methods.

The project will require the candidate to be proficient in a modern programming language (e.g., R or Python).

Applicants should have achieved a first-class degree in Statistics or Mathematics, with a significant component of Statistics, and be proficient in a statistical programming language (e.g., R, Python, Stata, S).

We strongly recommend that you contact the supervisor(s) for this project before you apply. Please send your CV and a brief cover letter to ines.henriques-cadby@manchester.ac.uk before you apply.

At Manchester we offer a range of scholarships, studentships and awards at university, faculty and department level, to support both UK and overseas postgraduate researchers.

For more information, visit our funding page or search our funding database for specific scholarships, studentships and awards you may be eligible for.