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Paper has a layered structure;
how are the layers related?
Two extreme cases:
Laminated papers or forming from dilute, well-mixed suspensions.
Cov(pq) =0 so Var(p+q) = Var(p) + Var(q), and
hence, for statistically similar layers we conclude that
Precisely cloned successive layers.
q=p so Cov(pq)= Var(p) and hence
Hydrodynamic Smoothing Modeled And Detected
Fibres flow towards lower
density regions of earlier layers.
Smoothing appears as negative
covariance of local areal densities in successive layers
In practice, we expect:
Smoothing Layers: Cov(pq) < 0.
If Cov(pq) < 0, then define the
smoothing parameter s:
See Sampson et al.  for experimental detection and
verification of smoothing.