PhD projects
This page provides a (partial) list of specific (and not so specific) PhD projects currently offered by academics in the School.
Identifying an interesting, worthwhile and doable PhD project is not a trivial task since it depends crucially on the interests and abilities of the student (and the supervisor!). The list below therefore contains a mixture of very specific projects and fairly general descriptions of research interests across the School. In either case you should feel free to contact the potential supervisors to find out more if you're interested.
All projects listed here are eligible for funding via scholarships from the School of Mathematics and/or the University of Manchester; see the Fees and Funding page for details. These scholarships are awarded competitively amongst the eligible applicants by School or University postgraduate funding committees. Members of staff regularly apply for research grants and may therefore be able to offer funding for specific projects without requiring approval from committees. Such projects are listed on a separate page.
Please note that this is not an exhaustive list of all the PhD projects we can offer. You should therefore also explore the School's research groups' pages, and have a look around the homepages of individual members of staff to find out more about their research interests. You may also contact us for general enquiries.
Title 
Rational points on algebraic varieties 

Group  Number Theory 
Supervisor  
Description 
Diophantine equations are a classical object of study in number theory. During the course of the 20th century, it was realised that one obtains a more powerful conceptual framework by considering them through a more geometric lens, namely viewing a solution to a Diophantine equation as a rational point on the associated algebraic variety. Given an algebraic variety over a number field, natural questions are: Is there is a rational point? If yes, are there infinitely many? If also yes, can one obtain a finer quantitative description of the distribution of the rational points? These problems are very difficult in general, but in this project the aim is to make some progress for some special classes of varieties (in particular solve some new cases of Manin’s conjecture). A popular current research theme is to consider these problems in families, such as studying the distribution of varieties in a family with a rational point, or controlling failures of the Hasse principle in families. To solve these problems one usually uses a combination of techniques from algebraic geometry and analytic number theory, but the project could be tailored towards the preferences of the student (e.g. for a student without much knowledge of algebraic geometry). 
Title 
Thermoviscoacoustic metamaterials for underwater applications 

Group  Industrial and Applied Mathematics 
Supervisor  
Description 
The ability to control underwater noise has been of practical interest for decades. Such noise, radiating from e.g. offshore wind farms, turbines, and merchant vessels, frequently needs to be attenuated artificially given the close proximity of its generation to sensitive marine environments for example. Over the last century a number of materials have been designed to assist with underwater noise attenuation. However, recently there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of acoustic metamaterials and metasurfaces. Such media have special microstructures, designed to provide overall (dynamic) material properties that natural materials can never hope to attain and lead to the potential of negative refraction, wave redirection and the holy grail of cloaking. Many of the mechanisms to create these artificial materials rely on the notion of resonance, which in turn gives rise to the possibility of low frequency sound attenuation. This is extremely difficult to achieve with normal materials. The mechanisms of sound attenuation, i.e. thermal and viscous, have not yet been properly understood for the many metamaterials under study, particularly in an underwater context. The aim of this project is to study this aspect via mathematical analysis and then to optimize designs in order to design and employ metamaterials for use in underwater noise reduction applications. Although there has been some initial interest over the last few years in the “inair” context, the parameter regime underwater gives rise to new effects that need to be explored and understood thoroughly. Initially canonical geometries such as simple apertures and infinite and semiinfinite ducts shall be considered before moving on to more complex, realistic scenarios and geometries where resonance plays a key role. Mathematical modelling using the method of matched asymptotics shall be employed. This is ideally suited to the scenarios considered given the low frequency regime. Comparisons shall be drawn with direct numerical simulations using finite element methods in e.g. COMSOL. 
Title 
Thermoviscoacoustic metamaterials for underwater applications 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
The ability to control underwater noise has been of practical interest for decades. Such noise, radiating from e.g. offshore wind farms, turbines, and merchant vessels, frequently needs to be attenuated artificially given the close proximity of its generation to sensitive marine environments for example. Over the last century a number of materials have been designed to assist with underwater noise attenuation. However, recently there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of acoustic metamaterials and metasurfaces. Such media have special microstructures, designed to provide overall (dynamic) material properties that natural materials can never hope to attain and lead to the potential of negative refraction, wave redirection and the holy grail of cloaking. Many of the mechanisms to create these artificial materials rely on the notion of resonance, which in turn gives rise to the possibility of low frequency sound attenuation. This is extremely difficult to achieve with normal materials. The mechanisms of sound attenuation, i.e. thermal and viscous, have not yet been properly understood for the many metamaterials under study, particularly in an underwater context. The aim of this project is to study this aspect via mathematical analysis and then to optimize designs in order to design and employ metamaterials for use in underwater noise reduction applications. Although there has been some initial interest over the last few years in the “inair” context, the parameter regime underwater gives rise to new effects that need to be explored and understood thoroughly. Initially canonical geometries such as simple apertures and infinite and semiinfinite ducts shall be considered before moving on to more complex, realistic scenarios and geometries where resonance plays a key role. Mathematical modelling using the method of matched asymptotics shall be employed. This is ideally suited to the scenarios considered given the low frequency regime. Comparisons shall be drawn with direct numerical simulations using finite element methods in e.g. COMSOL. 
Title 
Rational points on algebraic varieties 

Group  Geometry and Topology 
Supervisor  
Description 
Diophantine equations are a classical object of study in number theory. During the course of the 20th century, it was realised that one obtains a more powerful conceptual framework by considering them through a more geometric lens, namely viewing a solution to a Diophantine equation as a rational point on the associated algebraic variety. Given an algebraic variety over a number field, natural questions are: Is there is a rational point? If yes, are there infinitely many? If also yes, can one obtain a finer quantitative description of the distribution of the rational points? These problems are very difficult in general, but in this project the aim is to make some progress for some special classes of varieties (in particular solve some new cases of Manin’s conjecture). A popular current research theme is to consider these problems in families, such as studying the distribution of varieties in a family with a rational point, or controlling failures of the Hasse principle in families. To solve these problems one usually uses a combination of techniques from algebraic geometry and analytic number theory, but the project could be tailored towards the preferences of the student (e.g. for a student without much knowledge of algebraic geometry). 
Title 
Rational points on algebraic varieties 

Group  Algebra 
Supervisor  
Description 
Diophantine equations are a classical object of study in number theory. During the course of the 20th century, it was realised that one obtains a more powerful conceptual framework by considering them through a more geometric lens, namely viewing a solution to a Diophantine equation as a rational point on the associated algebraic variety. Given an algebraic variety over a number field, natural questions are: Is there is a rational point? If yes, are there infinitely many? If also yes, can one obtain a finer quantitative description of the distribution of the rational points? These problems are very difficult in general, but in this project the aim is to make some progress for some special classes of varieties (in particular solve some new cases of Manin’s conjecture). A popular current research theme is to consider these problems in families, such as studying the distribution of varieties in a family with a rational point, or controlling failures of the Hasse principle in families. To solve these problems one usually uses a combination of techniques from algebraic geometry and analytic number theory, but the project could be tailored towards the preferences of the student (e.g. for a student without much knowledge of algebraic geometry). 
Title 
Turbulent particleladen jets 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisors  
Description 
Turbulent particleladen jets are relevant to many geophysical and industrial applications: from volcanic eruptions, to sediment resuspension, fluidisation processes and chemical reactors. Much work has been done on the dilute regime of these twophase flows, where the particles have a small impact on the fluid and can often be considered as passive tracers. In this experimental project, we focus on the poorly understood dense regime, where the coupling between the solid particles and the fluid is more complex. Many fundamental questions, of high relevance to the applications mentioned above, are still unresolved. This project will explore the impact of the particle density on turbulent entrainment processes. Entrainment processes during an explosive volcanic eruption have a considerable impact on the extent of the damages. They determine whether the eruption will collapse and form a pyroclastic flow, with local implications, or whether the eruption column will rise and form an ash cloud spreading over extended regions, such as in the case of the 2010 eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökul. This project will also explore the effect on mixing processes, which are very important for instance in chemical reactors where the efficiency of the reaction depends strongly on the efficiency of the mixing. These dense particleladen jets are still poorly understood due to the considerable challenges faced analytically and numerically. Technical difficulties have also prevented progress on the experimental side for a long time. New experimental techniques, based on novel experimental design and imaging techniques, recently developed in the laboratory have allowed to probe much further into the complex dynamics of these dense particle laden jet. The main goal of this project is to pursue the development of these techniques in order to address the questions on entrainment and mixing described above. The project is suitable for an enthusiastic and creative candidate who has some experience in experimentation and good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Some knowledge in imaging analysis technique is desired but not necessary. The motivation and readiness of the candidate to learn new techniques and develop them to explore fundamental scientific questions will be key to the success of this project. 
Title 
Convective mass transfer for cleaning and decontamination 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisors  
Description 
Cleaning and decontamination processes can rely on different mechanisms to remove a patch of alien substance attached to a substrate. A shear flow covering the substrate can remove the substance through mechanical forces, potentially combined with chemical surfactant agent decreasing the adhesion of the substance onto the surface. However, this project is concerned with a second type of mechanism which is based on the dissolution of the substance into the cleaning fluid flow covering the substance. This second type of cleaning process establishes a convective mass transfer between the alien phase and the cleaning phase. Several applications rely on this process, particularly when the dispersion of the substance is unwanted, such as in the decontamination process of toxic chemical spills. In our daily life, the cleaning mechanism more and more favoured in dishwashers relies also on a convective mass transfer as it has been shown empirically to reduce energy and water consumption. This project will focus on the case of a film flow covering a single droplet containing several substances. Many fundamental questions are still unresolved in this multiphase convective mass transfer problem. In particular, we will study how advection processes inside the drop can influence the convective mass transfer. Effect of solubility and surface tension on the overall mass transfer can also be analysed. The project will explore these questions using a combination of experimentation, numerical simulations and theoretical analysis. The project is suitable for an enthusiastic and creative candidate who has good knowledge in fluid mechanics and some experience in experimentation and numerical simulations. Reference: J. R. Landel, A. L. Thomas, H. McEvoy and S. B. Dalziel. Convective mass transfer from a submerged drop in a thin falling film, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2016.

Title 
Turbulent particleladen jets 

Group  Industrial and Applied Mathematics 
Supervisors  
Description 
Turbulent particleladen jets are relevant to many geophysical and industrial applications: from volcanic eruptions, to sediment resuspension, fluidisation processes and chemical reactors. Much work has been done on the dilute regime of these twophase flows, where the particles have a small impact on the fluid and can often be considered as passive tracers. In this experimental project, we focus on the poorly understood dense regime, where the coupling between the solid particles and the fluid is more complex. Many fundamental questions, of high relevance to the applications mentioned above, are still unresolved. This project will explore the impact of the particle density on turbulent entrainment processes. Entrainment processes during an explosive volcanic eruption have a considerable impact on the extent of the damages. They determine whether the eruption will collapse and form a pyroclastic flow, with local implications, or whether the eruption column will rise and form an ash cloud spreading over extended regions, such as in the case of the 2010 eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökul. This project will also explore the effect on mixing processes, which are very important for instance in chemical reactors where the efficiency of the reaction depends strongly on the efficiency of the mixing. These dense particleladen jets are still poorly understood due to the considerable challenges faced analytically and numerically. Technical difficulties have also prevented progress on the experimental side for a long time. New experimental techniques, based on novel experimental design and imaging techniques, recently developed in the laboratory have allowed to probe much further into the complex dynamics of these dense particle laden jet. The main goal of this project is to pursue the development of these techniques in order to address the questions on entrainment and mixing described above. The project is suitable for an enthusiastic and creative candidate who has some experience in experimentation and good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Some knowledge in imaging analysis technique is desired but not necessary. The motivation and readiness of the candidate to learn new techniques and develop them to explore fundamental scientific questions will be key to the success of this project. 
Title 
Convective mass transfer for cleaning and decontamination 

Group  Industrial and Applied Mathematics 
Supervisors  
Description 
Cleaning and decontamination processes can rely on different mechanisms to remove a patch of alien substance attached to a substrate. A shear flow covering the substrate can remove the substance through mechanical forces, potentially combined with chemical surfactant agent decreasing the adhesion of the substance onto the surface. However, this project is concerned with a second type of mechanism which is based on the dissolution of the substance into the cleaning fluid flow covering the substance. This second type of cleaning process establishes a convective mass transfer between the alien phase and the cleaning phase. Several applications rely on this process, particularly when the dispersion of the substance is unwanted, such as in the decontamination process of toxic chemical spills. In our daily life, the cleaning mechanism more and more favoured in dishwashers relies also on a convective mass transfer as it has been shown empirically to reduce energy and water consumption. This project will focus on the case of a film flow covering a single droplet containing several substances. Many fundamental questions are still unresolved in this multiphase convective mass transfer problem. In particular, we will study how advection processes inside the drop can influence the convective mass transfer. Effect of solubility and surface tension on the overall mass transfer can also be analysed. The project will explore these questions using a combination of experimentation, numerical simulations and theoretical analysis. The project is suitable for an enthusiastic and creative candidate who has good knowledge in fluid mechanics and some experience in experimentation and numerical simulations. Reference: J. R. Landel, A. L. Thomas, H. McEvoy and S. B. Dalziel. Convective mass transfer from a submerged drop in a thin falling film, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2016. 
Title 
Scheduling and Parallel Computing 

Group  Probability and Stochastic Analysis 
Supervisor  
Description 
Consider a large computational task, for instance, solving a large system of linear equations. This task can be split into many smaller jobs which are then scheduled and queued at a large number of different heterogeneous computing resources and are executed in parallel. The processing requirements of the different resources (for instance CPUs and GPUs) are different, and they may well have different communication costs. In this project we will be interested in understanding the stochastic effects before designing (and implementing) novel distributed scheduling algorithms. 
Title 
Scheduling and Parallel Computing 

Group  Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing 
Supervisor  
Description 
Consider a large computational task, for instance, solving a large system of linear equations. This task can be split into many smaller jobs which are then scheduled and queued at a large number of different heterogeneous computing resources and are executed in parallel. The processing requirements of the different resources (for instance CPUs and GPUs) are different, and they may well have different communication costs. In this project we will be interested in understanding the stochastic effects before designing (and implementing) novel distributed scheduling algorithms. 
Title 
Representations of algebras and interpretations 

Group  Mathematical Logic 
Supervisor  
Description 
This is an indication of the area in which my current work is focussed, hence the area in which I would expect to supervise a student. 
Title 
Representations of algebras and interpretations 

Group  Algebra 
Supervisor  
Description 
This is an indication of the area in which my current work is focussed, hence the area in which I would expect to supervise a student. 
Title 
Segmentation and mathematical modelling of cerebrospinal fluid in the vertebral column 

Group  Industrial and Applied Mathematics 
Supervisor  
Description 
In the human body, the spinal cord, transmitting bidirectional information between brain and body, is found within the bony vertebral column. It is contained inside a membranous sac, the dura, and bathed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which circulates throughout the central nervous system in the subarachnoid space between dura and cord. Blood vessels and nerves enter and exit through the walls of the dural sac along its length. During each cardiac cycle a cyclic flow and pressure change has been observed within the CSF having the same period as the cardiac cycle. However, little is known about the precise nature or mechanism of this “CSF circulation”, including how the geometry of the subarachnoid space may affect the pressure of the CSF and its flow pattern. This knowledge would further our understanding of several pathological conditions of the central nervous system. With this in mind, the objective of this project is to understand the dynamics of the CSF, contained within the subarachnoid space of the spinal column, throughout a cardiac cycle. To achieve this goal the student will use 4D phasecontrast MR images, which are capable of detecting the velocity field of the CSF. In the beginning stages the focus will be on developing segmentation methods capable of creating a threedimensional model of the subarachnoid space allowing visualization of the changes throughout a cycle. This segmentation is difficult due to the complicated geometry of the subarachnoid space including vasculature and exiting nerves. Once this first stage is complete the student will use the resulting segmentation to produce a computational model for the flow of CSF throughout the cardiac cycle. The goal of this modeling will be to measure local relative pressure changes of the CSF, as well as to understand the interaction between the CSF pressure and the geometry of the subarachnoid space. Though based in the school of mathematics, this project will also involve close collaboration with researchers at the Royal Preston Hospital’s Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology departments who will be providing the MR images, produced as part of an ongoing study into CSF circulation in health and disease. 
Title 
Efficient solvers for multiphysics problems in drilling 

Group  Industrial and Applied Mathematics 
Supervisor  
Description 
This EPSRC Industrial Case Studentship is suitable for students with a strong applied mathematics background, particular in fluid and/or solid mechanics, and good computer programming skills. Drilling mud motors work in extreme environments with strong coupling between complex fluid (mud) and mechanical components. Efficient numerical simulation is a key engineering design tool, but fast solvers for these multiphysics systems are lacking. The aim of this project is to develop such solvers for modern multicore desktops and supercomputers. The solvers will be developed within the framework of our inhouse opensource finite element library (oomphlib). 
Title 
Modelling the formation of uranium hydride blisters 

Group  Industrial and Applied Mathematics 
Supervisor  
Description 
An industriallysponsored applied mathematics project that aims to develop quantitative models describing the corrosion of uranium by hydrogen via the formation and growth of discrete uranium hydride blisters. This project is closely related to another industriallysponsored project on mathematical modelling of diffusiondriven oxidation in metals. The proposed PhD will study the blisterformation problem at a fundamental level using continuum mechanical models that couple the transport and reaction of chemicals, transport and conversion of heat and deformation of the material. Typically, the timescales of each process are well separated so that dynamic deformation effects (oscillations) on the order of seconds are faster than the transport of heat which is faster than the diffusion of chemicals. The project will contain a strong modelling component and will pursue analytical and numerical approaches for the solution of the resulting model equations. The initial model development will be performed in a lowdimensional framework to allow rapid assessment of the influence of different assumptions. The later stages of the project will extend the framework to a realistic threedimensional geometry. The project is suitable for any student with a strong applied mathematics background. 
Title 
Efficient solvers for multiphysics problems in drilling 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
This EPSRC Industrial Case Studentship is suitable for students with a strong applied mathematics background, particular in fluid and/or solid mechanics, and good computer programming skills. Drilling mud motors work in extreme environments with strong coupling between complex fluid (mud) and mechanical components. Efficient numerical simulation is a key engineering design tool, but fast solvers for these multiphysics systems are lacking. The aim of this project is to develop such solvers for modern multicore desktops and supercomputers. The solvers will be developed within the framework of our inhouse opensource finite element library (oomphlib). 
Title 
Modelling the formation of uranium hydride blisters 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
An industriallysponsored applied mathematics project that aims to develop quantitative models describing the corrosion of uranium by hydrogen via the formation and growth of discrete uranium hydride blisters. This project is closely related to another industriallysponsored project on mathematical modelling of diffusiondriven oxidation in metals. The proposed PhD will study the blisterformation problem at a fundamental level using continuum mechanical models that couple the transport and reaction of chemicals, transport and conversion of heat and deformation of the material. Typically, the timescales of each process are well separated so that dynamic deformation effects (oscillations) on the order of seconds are faster than the transport of heat which is faster than the diffusion of chemicals. The project will contain a strong modelling component and will pursue analytical and numerical approaches for the solution of the resulting model equations. The initial model development will be performed in a lowdimensional framework to allow rapid assessment of the influence of different assumptions. The later stages of the project will extend the framework to a realistic threedimensional geometry. The project is suitable for any student with a strong applied mathematics background. 
Title 
Optimal Experimental Designs 

Group  Statistics and its Applications 
Supervisor  
Description 
The success of many experimental studies in Biology, Chemistry, Engineering, Experimental Physics, Material Science, Medicine, etc., depends on the experimental designs that are used to collect the data. The aim of this project is to develop novel statistical methods for constructing designs that have desirable statistical properties. 
Title 
Development of group theory in the language of internal set theory 

Group  Mathematical Logic 
Supervisor  
Description 
The internal set theory, as proposed by Edward Nelson in 1977, blurs the line between finite and infinite sets in a very simple, effective and controlled way. This PhD project is aimed at a systematic development of the theory of finite and pseudofinite groups in the language of the internal set theory. This is motivated by problems in a branch of computational group theory, the socalled black box recognition of finite groups. Its typical object is a group generated by several matrices of large size, say, 100 by 100, over a finite field. Individual elements of such a group can be easily manipulated by a computer; however, the size of the whole group is astronomical, and arguments leading to identification of the structure of the group are being de facto carried out in an infinite object. The internal set theory provides tools that allow us to deal with finite objects and numbers that are, in effect, infinite. This is an exciting, unusual, but accessible topic for study. Read more at http://www.maths.manchester.ac.uk/~avb/pdf/PhD_Topic_Internal_Set_Theory.pdf. Prerequisites for the project: university level courses in algebra. Some knowledge of mathematical logic is desirable. 
Title 
Axiomatic approaches to the Hrushovski Programme 

Group  Mathematical Logic 
Supervisor  
Description 
The celebrated Hrushovski Programme is aimed at proving that the group of fixed points of a generic automorphism of a simple group of finite Morley rank behaves as a pseudofinite group and, with some luck, is pseudofinite indeed. The aim of the project is to analyse a few configurations where the assumptions of the Hrushovski Conjecture are strengthened. For example, an interesting case is where the fixed points sets of the automorphism in question have "size" with values in a linearly ordered ring which behaves in a strict analogy with cardinality of finite sets; will in that case the group of fixed points be pseudofinite? This question may perhaps involve some nontrivial model theory of the ring of "sizes" and some abstract versions of the LangWeil inequality linking the Morley rank of an invariant definable set and the "size" of the set of its fixed points. 
Title 
Axiomatic approaches to the Hrushovski Programme 

Group  Algebra 
Supervisor  
Description 
The celebrated Hrushovski Programme is aimed at proving that the group of fixed points of a generic automorphism of a simple group of finite Morley rank behaves as a pseudofinite group and, with some luck, is pseudofinite indeed. The aim of the project is to analyse a few configurations where the assumptions of the Hrushovski Conjecture are strengthened. For example, an interesting case is where the fixed points sets of the automorphism in question have "size" with values in a linearly ordered ring which behaves in a strict analogy with cardinality of finite sets; will in that case the group of fixed points be pseudofinite? This question may perhaps involve some nontrivial model theory of the ring of "sizes" and some abstract versions of the LangWeil inequality linking the Morley rank of an invariant definable set and the "size" of the set of its fixed points. 
Title 
Interdefinability of abelian functions 

Group  Mathematical Logic 
Supervisor  
Description 
Recently there has been a great deal of interaction between model theorists and number theorists on topics around `unlikely intersections', see for example [3]. One outcome of this is that there are now various functional transcendence results known for certain covering maps. The original example of this is Ax's functional version [1] of Schanuel's conjecture. This result and its more recent descendants have been used to study interdefinability of Weierstrass elliptic functions [2] and the initial aim of this project is to extend this to abelian functions. This would involve a mixture of model theory, differential algebra and number theory, although these are not all required to get started. It should also lead naturally to further interesting questions in these areas. 
Title 
Lie algebra actions on noncommutative rings 

Group  Algebra 
Supervisor  
Description 
My interests in Lie theory are focused on Lie algebra actions on noncommutative rings. An example is the representation of a Lie group, and its Lie algebra, on exterior powers of a finitedimensional module, or on a Clifford algebra. Many methods of the ChevalleyKostant theory still apply, but often need to be combined with tools of noncommutative algebra. 
Title 
Reflection groups in noncommutative algebra 

Group  Algebra 
Supervisor  
Description 
Finite linear groups generated by reflections arise in many areas of algebra, Lie theory being a prominent example. In the work of Chevalley, Shephard, Todd and Serre, reflection groups are seen to be the groups which have ""good"" rings of invariants when acting on a ring of polynomials. 
Title 
Morita equivalences of finite groups 

Group  Algebra 
Supervisor  
Description 
Most of my current research is focused on the problem of identifying Morita equivalence classes of blocks of finite groups. This is part of the study of the representation theory of finite groups with respect to fields of prime characteristic. Briefly, Morita equivalence is an equivalence of module categories, preserving the structure of modules for an algebra. 
Title 
Complex deformations of biological soft tissues 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisors  
Description 
The answers to many open questions in medicine depend on understanding the mechanical behaviour of biological soft tissues. For example, which tendon is most appropriate to replace the anterior cruciate ligament in reconstruction surgery? what causes the onset of aneurysms in the aorta? and how does the mechanics of the bladder wall affect afferent nerve firing? Current work at The University of Manchester seeks to understand how the microstructure of a biological soft tissue affects its macroscale mechanical properties. Most of the work to date has focused on simple deformations (e.g. longitudinal extension under tension) for which analytical solutions can be found. However, the geometry and deformation of many soft tissues in vivo is sufficiently complex to prohibit analytical solutions. 
Title 
Efficient Uncertainty Quantification for PDEs with Random Data 

Group  Industrial and Applied Mathematics 
Supervisor  
Description 
Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is the science of accounting for uncertainty in mathematical models. Research in this area has undergone rapid growth in the last few years and is currently considered a 'hot topic'. This growth has been driven by the need for scientists in today's world to provide decision makers with ever more accurate and reliable predictions that are based on results obtained from mathematical models. Projects on this topic would suit students who have taken undergraduate courses in numerical analysis and applied mathematics who have a keen interest in computational mathematics and developing practical algorithms. Some prior programming experience is essential. 
Title 
Mathematical theory of diffraction 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
There is a long history of mathematicians working on canonical diffraction (or scattering) problems. The mathematical theory of diffraction probably started with the work of Sommerfeld at the end of the 19th century and his famous solution to the diffraction of acoustic waves by a solid halfplane. Since, some very ingenious mathematical methods have been developed to tackle such problems. One of the most famous being the WienerHopf technique. 
Title 
Combustion instabilities 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
Combustion is essential to energy generation and transport needs, and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Mitigating its impact on the climate and human health, by reducing its associated emissions, is thus a priority. One suggested strategy to reduce NOx is to operate combustors at lean conditions. Unfortunately, combustion instability is more likely to occur in the lean regime, and may have catastrophic consequences on the components of combustion chambers, such as vibrations and structural fatigue. Ramjet engines, rocket engines and in general any type of gas turbine engines may be subject to this detrimental instability. The ability to predict and control the instability is crucial for implementing the lean burn strategy. Combustion instability involves an intricate interplay of several key physical processes, which take place in regions of different length scales. Due to this multiscale, multiphysics nature of the problem, direct numerical simulations of realistic combustors are extremely challenging. For this reason, simplified mathematical models capturing qualitatively and quantitatively the main characteristics of combustion instability are essential. In particular, by exploiting the scale disparity, systematic asymptotic analyses may be carried out to derive relevant models on first principles, and to provide guidance for developing reliable and efficient numerical algorithms. 
Title 
Microstructural models of the constitutive behaviour of soft tissue 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisors  
Description 
Soft tissue such as tendon, ligament, skin, and the brain possess complex nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive behaviour which arises due to the intricate microstructures inherent in such materials. The majority of existing models for the constitutive behaviour of soft tissue are phenomenological so that the parameters involved in the model are not derivable from experiments. In this project the objective is to build models that are based on the microstructure and we will liaise with experimentalists, particularly those in imaging science, in order to ensure that the parameters involved can be directly measured. This project would suit those with a strong background in continuum mechanics and modelling and although not essential some background knowledge in nonlinear elasticity would be useful. 
Title 
Fractional differential equations and anomalous transport 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
This project is concerned with anomalous transport, which cannot be described by standard calculus. Instead it requires the use of fractional differential equations involving fractional derivatives of non integer order. This is a new, exciting area of research because anomalous transport is a widespread natural phenomenon. Examples include flight of albatross, stock prices, human migration, social networks, transport on fractal geometries, proteins on cell membranes, bacterial motion, and signalling molecules in the brain. 
Title 
Selfaffine sets: geometry, topology and arithmetic 

Group  Analysis and Dynamical Systems 
Supervisor  
Description 
Iterated function systems (IFS) are commonly used to produce fractals. While selfsimilar IFS are well studied, selfaffine IFS are still relatively new. 
Title 
Integral Geometry of Cones 

Group  Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing 
Supervisor  
Description 
Science and technology depends increasingly on the efficient acquisition, storage and processing of vast amounts of data. 
Title 
Stability and separation in R>>1 flows 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
I have several projects available in the area of high Reynolds number flows, including the study of laminar separation and stability of thin films, cavity flows, breakup of separation bubbles, crossflow instability. The work can be theoretical, numerical or a mixture of both. 
Title 
Fractal geometry and dimension theory 

Group  Analysis and Dynamical Systems 
Supervisor  
Description 
Roughly speaking, a fractal is an object which displays interesting geometrical features at arbitrarily small scales. Such objects appear naturally in numerous areas of pure and applied science and fractal geometry is the subject which tries to develop a rigorous mathematical framework for studying them. 
Title 
Environmental fluid mechanics 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
Many problems of environmental significance require the effective prediction of particulate (contaminant) transport in a fluid system (which constitutes a `twophase' fluid/particle problem). The primary focus of this project is a suspension of solid particles (dust/ash) in a viscous incompressible fluid. Most practical cases of interest have particles that are typically fractions of a millimetre in size, but still occupy a nonsmall fraction of the total mixture mass and exist in large numbers. The simultaneous treatment of all individual particles (and the correspondingly complicated fluid domain) is computationally impractical, a state of affairs that will remain for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, the behaviour of a single particle cannot be solved in isolation of the other particles, owing to particleparticle interactions through the motion of the interstitial fluid, or by direct particle collisions at high concentration levels. In such cases, both phases of the mixture exchange momentum with the other, so that the fluid motion and the particle motion remain coupled together. Furthermore, the presence of bounding surfaces for the fluid mixture can have crucial consequences for the structural and temporal development of the flow and the distribution of suspended material. This project aims to continue the development of existing macro scale models, in which both phases are treated as coexisting (coupled) continua, through a combination of analytical and computational methods. 
Title 
Flow and transport in the placenta 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
The placenta provides an interface beween fetal and maternal blood, supplying essential nutrients to the growing fetus. Within the placenta, fetal blood is confined to a treelike network of blood vessels that are bathed in a pool of maternal blood. The placenta's effectiveness as a transporter of oxygen, glucose, and other molecules is critically determined by its complex geometric structure; this may be compromised in disease, with adverse consequences for fetal growth and development. This project will build on recent studies of the maternal circulation [13], developing analogies with models flow through porous media and exploring new multiscale approximation techniques. The project offers opportunities for analysis, computation and interaction with experimentalists. References:

Title 
Plant tissue mechanics 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
Plant growth arises through the coordinated expansion of individual cells, allowing a plant to adapt to its environment to harness light, water and essential nutrients. Growth is driven by the high internal turgor pressure of cells and is regulated by physical and biochemical modifications of plant cell walls. Many features of this immensely complex process remain poorly understood, despite its profound societal and environmental importance. Mathematical models describing the mechanical properties of a growing plant tissue integrate features ranging from molecular interactions within an individual cell wall to the expansion, bending or twisting of a multicellular root or stem. Building on current biological understanding, this project will address the development and analysis of new multiscale models for plant tissues, exploiting a variety of computational and asymptotic techniques. Background references:

Title 
Optimal prediction problems driven by Lévy processes 

Group  Probability and Stochastic Analysis 
Supervisor  
Description 
An optimal prediction problem is a type of optimal control problem very similar to classic optimal stopping problems, however with the crucial difference that the gains process is not adapted to the filtration generated by the driving process. Consider for instance the problem of stopping a Brownian motion at a time closest (in some suitable metric) to the time the Brownian motion attains its ultimate supremum. This is an optimal prediction problem: the gains are determined by the difference between the chosen stopping time and the time at which the Brownian motion actually does attain its ultimate supremum, and as the latter quantity is not known until the whole path of the process is revealed the gains is indeed not adapted. 
Title 
Revenue Management 

Group  Mathematical Finance and Actuarial Science 
Supervisor  
Description 
By Revenue Management (RM), we mean the process of understanding, forecasting and influencing consumer behaviour in order to maximise a firm's revenues. Put simply, RM is all about selling the right product to the right customer at the right time for the right price. RM originated in the airline industry under the term Yield Management. Today, RM is widely employed in many other major industries, such as hotels, restaurants, car rentals and carparks. A prospective research student in this area should expect to gain knowledge on Optimisation, Markov Processes, Dynamic programming and HJB equations. 
Title 
Numerical Analysis and Computational Methods for Solving PDEs with Uncertainty 

Group  Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing 
Supervisor  
Description 
Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is the science of accounting for uncertainty in mathematical models. Research in this area has undergone rapid growth in the last few years and is currently considered a 'hot topic'. This growth has been driven by the need for scientists in today's world to provide decision makers with ever more accurate and reliable predictions that are based on results obtained from mathematical models. Many physical processes such as fluid flows are governed by partial differential equations (PDEs). In practical applications in the real world, it is unlikely that all the inputs (boundary conditions, geometry, coefficients) for the chosen PDE model will be known. One possibility is to model the quantities that we don't know as random variables. Solving these problems is not always hard in theory but solving them efficiently in practice is a massive challenge. I am interested in working with students who want to develop numerical analysis and numerical methods for solving partial differential equations with uncertain inputs. I welcome any enquiries to work in this area. Specific projects could be theoretical or computational, according to the strengths of the student. Projects on this topic would suit students who have taken undergraduate courses in numerical analysis and applied mathematics who have a keen interest in computational mathematics and developing practical algorithms. Some prior programming experience is essential. Background reference: An Introduction to Computational Stochastic PDEs (Cambridge Texts in Applied Mathematics), G. J. Lord, C.E. Powell and T. Shardlow, 2014. 
Title 
Interactions between rocks and ice 

Group  Continuum Mechanics 
Supervisor  
Description 
Many glaciers are covered by a debris layer whose presence has multiple, competing effects on the glacier's melt rate. The debris layer shields the ice from incoming solar radiation and thus reduces its melt rate. However, since the albedo of the debris layer is much smaller than that of the ice, the debris layer is heated up very rapidly by the solar radiation, an effect that is likely to increase the melt rate. The project aims to develop theoretical/computational models to study how solid objects (rocks) which are placed on (or embedded in) an ice layer affect the ice's melt rate. The work will employ (and contribute to) the objectoriented multiphysics finiteelement library oomphlib, developed by M. Heil and A.L. Hazel and their collaborators, and available as open source software at http://www.oomphlib.org. The project would suit students with an interest in mathematical modelling, continuum mechanics and scientific computing and will be performed in close collaborations with Glaciologists at the University of Sheffield and the Bavarian Academy of Science. 